Ancient Attica- 3° part

ANAGYROUS (Ἀναγυροῦς), Attic paralia deme of Erechtheis phyle. The location of Anagyrous has been firmly established to be at the modern Vari, on a small plain just to the east of Cape Zoster and the south end of Mount Hymettos. Anagyrous was well-established around a deme center. The remains of a fortification dating to the 5th century BC can still be seen atop a small hill to the west of the modern town. This fortification probably served as a signalling station, since it has a clear line of sight to Peiraieus in the north and most of the Attic coast to the south as far as Athens.
Pausanias mentions at this place a temple of the Mother of the Gods. On the slopes of Hymettos is a grotto of Nymphs which was still in excellent condition in the early 19th century. There is also evidence of theater activities as early as 440-431 BC. Euripides may have won an early victory there.
The deme took its name from a local Hero, Anagyros, who had a precint in Anagyrous. The Hero is largely known for punishing a farmer who cut down his sacred grove: “the old man who lived near by and cut down trees of the grove was punished by the Hero Anagyrus” and also “Anagyrasian divinity’: the saying is used when a whole household is overwhelmed of misfortunes. The story goes that a farmer in the deme of the Anagyriasian  was accused of violating the neighbouring altar, whereupon ha was visited with terrible calamities.” The story is told in the lost play Anagyrus by Diphilos and the play of the same name by Aristophanes, of which only fragments remain.
Anagyros is also the name for the stinking bean trefoil (Anagyris foetida): “stir up anagyrus’: Anagyrous is an Attic township where there grows a bad-smelling plant, also called anagyrus. So from this comes the proverb applied to people who stir up things or someone to bad effect on themselves. But some say there was a Hero Anagyrous who utterly obliterated the neighboring households after they tried to profanate his hero-shrine.”
The blossom smells strongly of cabbage, and all parts of the plant were used medicinally, particularly in cases surrounding childbirth problems.
(Strab. IX 1, 24; Paus. 1.31.1; Harpocrat., Suda, Steph. B. ; Zen. Proverbs 2.55; Pliny NH 27.13; Her. 8.93)

CHOLLEIDAI (Χολλεῖδαι), Attic mesogeia deme of Leontis phyle. It is supposed to have been near the Grotto of the Nymphs, situated at the southern end of Mt. Hymettus, and about three miles from Vári by the road.
Kholleidai is best known as the deme of Dikaiopolis, the hero of Aristophanes’ Acharnians.
From the inscriptions in the Nymphs’ cave, we learn that it was dedicated to the Nymphs and the other rustic deities by Archedemus of Pherae , who had been enrolled in the deme of Cholleidai. Hence it is inferred that the grotto was, in all probability, situated in this deme.
(Harpocr.; Suda; Steph.; Schol. ad Aristoph. Acharn. 404)

THORAI (Θοραί), Attic paralia deme of Antiochis phyle. The general location of Thorai is known from Strabo, who placed it on the coast between Anagyrous and Lamptrai. It was on the southwestern coast of Attica, possibly near the modern Finikia or more likely between Lagonisis and Agios Dimitrios.
According to Pherekydes, Kephalos lived in Thorai after his marriage to Prokris. The senior branch of the Kephalidai were based in the deme and the Archaic necropolis in the area was likely in the deme’s territory.
(Strab. IX 1, 21; Harpocr.; Steph.; Etym. M. Suda)

LAMPTRAI (Λαμπτραί καθύπερθεν/ὑπένερθεν or παράλοι), the name of two demi, Upper Lamptrai (Λάμπτρα καθύπερθεν), and Lower or Maritime Lamptrai (Λάμπτρα ὑπένερθεν or παράλιος). The location of Lamptrai is well established. Upper Lamptrai was located near modern Lambrika, while Lower Lamptrai was located at Kitsi Pigadi. Both deme sites are confirmed by epigraphic evidence and Lambrikai appears to preserve the ancient name.
Lamptrai was said to be the place where the ancient Athenian king Kranaos fled after being expelled by Amphiktyon. His tomb could be seen there, probably corresponding to the early Mycenaean acropolis and necropolis at Kiapha Thiti. It was served by the genos.
From Upper Lamptrai comes also a dedication to Apollo.
Coastal Lamptrai was also the site of a spring and Nymphaion, the rules for which were handed down by the Oracle at Delphi and are preserved in an inscription. Visitors were required to pay one obol annually to the nymphs for drinking water, with a surcharge of one obol per amphora for other uses. Those caught drinking water without paying for it were fined five drachmas and those who “plundered” the water without paying the surcharge were fined fifty drachmas.
(Paus. 1.31.2; Steph.; Hesych.; Harpocr.; Suda; Phot.; Traill, John S., An Interpretation of Six Rock-cut Inscriptions in the Attic Demes of Lamptrai; IG II2 1204, 2967)

AIGILIA (Αἰγιλιά), Attic paralia deme of Antiochis phyle. On the south-western coast of Attica, probably near Hagios Panteleimon. Strabo places it between Thorai and Anaphlystos.
It was celebrated for its figs.
(Suda; Athen. p. 652e.; Theocr. 1.147; Strabo 9.1.24)

ANAPHLYSTOS (Ἀνάφλυστος), Attic paralia deme of Antiochis phyle. The location of Anaphylstos is relatively well established on the south-western coast of Attica, between the promontories of Astypalaia and Sunion, a little south of the former, near the modern Anavysso.
According to myth, Anaphlystos took its name from one of the sons of Troezen who migrated to Attica.
Prior to its assimilation into Athenian hegemony, Anaphylstos appears to have had the status of a polis, but was not one of the traditional poleis of the Attic Dodekapolis.
There was a fortress in the area to help guard the whole mining district of Laureion. Strabo mentions a grotto of Pan near Anaphlystos. It is probably the cavern above Mt. Elymbo.
(Suda; Hdt. 4.99; Scylax, p. 21; Xen. de Vectig. 4. 43; Strab. 9.1.21)

AZENIA (Ἀζηνία), Attic paralia deme of Hippothontis phyle. It is the only deme mentioned by Strabo  between Anaphlystos and Sunion. It was probably situated in the bay of which Sunion forms the eastern cape. Opposite this bay is a small island, the Island of Patroclus (Πατρόκλου χάραξ or νῆσος), because a fortress was built upon it by Patroclus, who commanded on one occasion the ships of Ptolemy Philadelphus.
(Harpocr.; Hesych.; Steph.; Bekker, Anecd. i. p. 348; Paus. 1.1.1; Steph. s. v. Πατρόκλου νῆσος)

SOUNION (Σούνιον), Attic paralia deme of Leontis phyle. It’s the name of a promontory and deme on the southern coast of Attica. The promontory, which forms the most southerly point in the country, rises almost perpendicularly from the sea to a great height; the deme center was probably in the upper Agrileza valley. Sounion is best known for its temple of Poseidon, which was situated at the highest point of the cape some 60 meters above the sea. The cult of Poseidon stretches back to at least the Geometric Period, when monumental kouroi were erected in large numbers.
On a lower hill to the north was the temple of Athena Sounias. Two Classical era temples appear to have been built there in the fifth century BC.
Other important religious structures included a Herakleion administered by the local branch of the Salaminioi and possibly a heroon of Phrontis, the helmsman of Menelaos who was said to have been killed by Apollo at Sounion.
Sunion was fortified in the nineteenth year of the Peloponnesian War (B.C. 413) for the purpose of protecting the passage of the cornships to Athens and was regarded from that time as one of the principal fortreses of Attica. Its proximity to the silver mines of Laurium probably contributed to its prosperity, which passed into a proverb; but even in the time of Cicero it had sunk into decay. The circuit of the walls may still be traced, except where the precipitous nature of the rocks afforded a natural defence. The walls which are fortified with square towers, are of the most regular Hellenic masonry, and enclose a space or a little more than half a mile in circumference. The southern part of Attica, extending northwards from the promontory of Sunion as far as Thoricos on the east, and Anaphlystos on the west, is called by Herodotus the Suniac angle (τὸν γουνὸν τὸν Σουνιακόν, 4.99).
(Paus. 1.1.1, 1.28.2; Hom. Od. 3.278; Soph. Ajax, 1235; Eur. Cycl. 292; Vitr. 4.7; Thuc. 8.4; Comp. Dem. pro Cor. p. 238; Liv. 31.25; Scylax, p. 21; Anaxand. ap. Athen. 6.263c. Cic. ad Att. 13.10; Aristoph. Kn. 557, Aves, 869)

PHYLE (Φυλή), Attic paralia deme of Oineis phyle. Phyle was located on the east side of Mount Parnes, overseeing the pass on the most direct route from Athens to Thebes and it is still called Fili. A strong fortress stands on a steep rock, commanding the narrow pass across Mt. Parnes, through which runs the direct road from Thebes to Athens, past Acharnai. On the northern side of the pass was the territory of Tanagra. Phyle is situated at the distance of more than 120 stadia from Athens, not 100 stadia, as Diodorus states (14.32), and was one of the strongest Athenian fortresses on the Boeotian frontier- as with several other garrison forts in times of relative peace, Phyle was largely manned by ephebes in their second year of training.. The precipitous rock upon which it stands can only be approached by a ridge on the eastern side. The height of Phyle commands a magnificent view of the whole Athenian plain, of the city itself, of Mt. Hymettos, and the Saronic Gulf. In Phyle there was a building called the Daphnephoreion, containing a picture, which represented the Thargelia. Phyle held a grotto of Pan (the site of Menander’s Dyskolos) and a shrine of Artemis Agrotera.
(Suda; Psephisma, ap. Dem. de Cor. p. 238; Athen. 10.424f; Aristoph. Acharnians, ll. 1027-32)

HARMA (Ἅρμα), a fortress, but not a deme, near Phyle, situated on a height visible from Athens. Leake places it above Phyle, towards the summit of the ridge, and to the left of the modern road, where the ruins of a fortress are visible; but other writers place it south-east of Phyle.
(Strab. ix. p.404; Eustath. ad II. 2.499)

CHASTIEIS (Χαστιεῖς), a demus, mentioned only by Hesychius (s. v.); but in consequence of the similarity of name, it is supposed to have occupied the site of Khassiá, the largest village in Attica, which is the first place met with on descending the pass of Phyle towards Athens.

DEKELEIA (Δεκέλεια), Attic mesogeia deme of Hippothontis phyle. It was situated near the entrance of the eastern pass across Mount Parnes, which leads from the north-eastern part of the Athenian plain to Oropus, and from thence both to Tanagra on the one hand, and to Delium and Chalcis on the other.
It was located primarily on what would become the grounds of the royal palace of Tatoi, with the deme center probably close to the stables.
It was situated about 120 stadia from Athens, and the same distance from the frontiers of Boeotia: it was visible from Athens, and from its heights also might be seen the ships entering the harbour of Peiraeeus.
Dekeleia was one of the twelve cities of the Kekropian Dodecapolis before the synoikia of Theseus. It was the Dekeleians or their eponymous king Dekeleus who betrayed the location of Helen to the Dioskouroi when Theseus had kidnapped her and installed her at Aphidna. As a reward, the Dekeleians received a number of privileges from the Spartans, including freedom from all dues and the chief seats as all festivals. More importantly, the Spartans refrained from devastating the territory of Dekeleia during the early years of the Peloponnesian Wars, also known as the Archidamnian War.
It was by the pass of Deceleia that Mardonius retreated from Athens into Boeotia before the battle of Plataeae; and it was by the same road that the grain was carried from Euboea through Oropus into Attica. In B.C. 413 Deceleia was occupied and fortified by the Lacedaemonians who kept possession of the place till the end of the war; and from the command which they thus obtained of the Athenian plain, they prevented them from cultivating the neighbouring land, and compelled them to bring the corn from Euboea round Cape Sunion.
(Suda; Strab. ix. p.397; Thuc. 7.19, 7.28; Xen. Hell. 1.1. 25; Hdt. 9.15)


OION DEKELEIKON (Οἶον Δεκελεικόν), Attic mesogeia deme of Hippothontis phyle. As indicated by its name, the general location of Oion Dekeleikon was near the deme Dekeleia. The deme site near Bogiati, to the southeast of Dekeleia is considered most likely to have been Oion Dekeleikon. Oion Dekeleikon appears to have been the center for the phratry of the Demotionidai. This may indicate that the deme was once part of Dekeleia and only became an independent entity as part of or after the reforms of Kleisthenes.
(Harpocrat.; Suda; Lambert, S.D., The Phratries of Attica)



Ancient Attica- 2° part


PAIONIDAI (Παιονίδαι), Attic mesogeia deme of Leontis phyle. Paionidai was located at the foot of a southern spur of Mount Parnes, most likely north of modern Menidi. Paionidai
took its name from the genos of the same name: the clan was one of several claiming descent from Neleus; their name came from Paion, the son of Antilokhos.
Remains of an ancient fortification in the southern foothills of Mt. Parnes north of the village of Menidi have long been known as the fortress of Leipsydrion. According to Herodotos,
the Alkmaionids fortified a site known as Leipsydrion above what would become the deme in 514 BC, following the murder of Hipparkhos. They were attacked there by the
Peisitratids and suffered a great defeat, which was commemorated in a drinking song. The site of Leipsydrion is not known, though a fortification near Karagufolesa is traditionally
identified with it.
Paionidai also appears in Aristophanes’ Lysistrata. The foolish husband of Myrrhine is introduced as Kinesias of Paionidai.
(Her. 5.62; Arist. Ath. Pol. 19; Aristoph. Lysistr. 852 and scholia)


KEPHISIA (Κηφισιά), Attic mesogeia deme of Erechtheis phyle. It was one of the ancient twelve cities of Cecrops, and continued to be an important deme down to the latest times. It retains its ancient name Kifissia and is situated west of Mt. Pentelicus, nearly opposite Acharnae.  Located near the headwaters of the river Kephissos, it was and still is a popular retreat from the heat of the summer for Athenians. It was known for its springs, fountains, and groves. It was the favourite summer residence of Herodes Atticus, who adorned it with buildings, gardens, and statues. The deme decree found there provides the earliest evidence of a palaistra in a rural Attic deme.
(Strab. 9.397; D. L. 3.41; Philostr. Vit. Soph. 2.1.12; Gel. 1.2, 18.10; Harpocrat.; Phot.; Wordsworth, p. 227)

ATHMONON (Ἄθμονον, also Ἀθμονία), Attic mesogeia deme of the Cecropis phyle. It is situated in the north-east of Attica, on the site of the modern Marousi. The name of the modern village has been derived from Amarysia, a surname of Artemis, who was worshipped under this designation at Athmonum. An inscription found near Marousi, in which the temenos of this Goddess is mentioned, puts the matter beyond dispute. (ὅρος Ἀρτέμιδος τεμένους Ἀμαρυδίας) Athmonum also possessed a very ancient temple of Aphrodite Urania, and there appear to have been Amarysian Games held in honor of the local Artemis.
The inhabitants of this deme appear to have been considered clever wine-dressers: the protagonist of Aristophanes’ Peace is Trygaios of Athmonon, who is described as “a skilled vineyard worker, not a malicious prosecutor or lover of litigation.” His name is derived from τρυγάω, to gather fruit. The deme was also one of the sources for red potter’s clay  and may have had a rural flavor.
(Harpocrat.; Steph. B. sub voce Zonar.; Suid.; Bekker, Anecd. i. p. 349; Paus. 1.35.5, 1.14.7; Aristoph. Pac.; IG II2 1203, 5338)

IPHISTIADAI (Ἰφιστιάδαι, Ἡφαιστιάδαι), Attic asty deme of Akamantis phyle. Iphistiadai was located near the modern Iraklion ( this deme contained a temple of Herakles, which has probably given its name to the modern village), approximately 10 km north-northeast of the city walls and 2 km south of the banks of the Kephissos river. The site is well confirmed due to the terms of Plato’s will in Diogenes Laertius and the find of a boundary stone for the temple of Herakles.
Until the mid-19th century, it was thought that Iphistiadai and Hephaistiadai referred to two separate demes, but these are the names of one deme, and not two separate. Iphistiadai appears to have been the correct form of the name,  the other name was a Hellenistic or Roman era corruption. The deme took its name from an eponmymous hero Iphistios. Other than a mention in Hesychius, which was repeated in the Suda, Iphistios is otherwise unknown.
Iphistiadai is best known from the mention of a property there in Plato’s will as given by Diogenes Laertius. Plato describes the property as being bounded by the road from the temple at Kephisia on the north and by the temple of Herakles on the south.
(Steph. B. sub voce; Suda s.v.; Hesych.; Plato D. L. 3.41; Sculpture in the National Archaeological Museum, Athens, p. 146)

EIRESIDAI (Εἰρεσίδαι), Attic asty deme of Akamantis phyle. Eiresidai was located west of Kolonos Hippios, on the east bank of the Kephissos river, some 3 km north of the city walls. The site is fairly well established by Plato’s will as cited by Diogenes Laertius and the find spot of a grave marker.
Eiresidai is known largely for a piece of property which Plato purchased from an otherwise unknown Kallimikhos. It lay adjacent to other properties held by his nephew Eurymedon. He left it to “the boy” Adeimantos, who is thought to have been the grandson of one of Plato’s brothers.
(Steph. B. sub voce Bekker, Anecd. i. p. 246; Plato D. L. 3.41; Πρακτικα, 1963, p. 8)

PENTELE (Πεντέλη), was situated at the north-eastern extremity of the Athenian plain, at the marble quarries of Mt. Brilessus, which was called Mt. Pentelicus from this place. The fact of Pentele being a deme rests upon the authority of Stephanus alone, and has not yet been confirmed by inscriptions.

PALLENE (Παλλήνη), Attic mesogeia deme of Antiochis phyle. Pallene was located near the modern Stavro, since renamed Palini, just south of Mount Pentelikon, northeast of Athens.It lay on the direct route between Marathon and Athens. Since Strabo only listed eleven of the the twelve cities of the Kekropian Dodecapolis, Pallene has often been suggested in both ancient and modern times as the twelfth; anyhow, it is a celebrated demus, frequently mentioned by ancient writers and in inscriptions. From the mythical story of the war of the Pallantidai against Theseus, we learn that the demi of Pallene, Gargettus, and Hagnous were adjacent. In fact, Pallene took its name from Pallas, the son of Pandion, who together with his 50 sons opposed Theseus becoming king after the death of Aigeus. When Pallas was marching from Sphettus in the Mesogaia against Athens, he placed a body of his troops in ambush at Gargettus, under the command of his sons, who were ordered, as soon as he was engaged with the army of Theseus, to march rapidly upon Athens and take the city by surprise, But the stratagem was revealed to Theseus by Leos of Hagnous, the herald of Pallas; whereupon Theseus cut to pieces the troops at Gargettus. In consequence of this a lasting enmity followed between the inhabitants of Pallene and Hagnous, and there was a ban on intermarriage with people from Hagnous and the use of the heraldic pronouncement Ἀκούετε λεῴ.
The deme was also said to be the place where Iolaus was rejuvenated and began his pursuit of Eurystheus when the latter sought to drive the Heraklids out of Attica. Some traditions placed the grave of Eurystheus in the deme as well- we are told that Eurystheus was buried at Gargettus in front of the temple of Athena Pallenis.
In fact, Pallene was also the center of a religious association known as the League of Athena Pallenis. The chief demes in the league were Gargettos, Akharnai, Pallene, and Paiania. Though members of other demes could also join the league, leadership always came from those four demes. Kleisthenes’ placement of those four demes in four separate tribes and trittyes is an example of his efforts to undermine the power of the religious associations, most of which were controlled by the aristocracy.
There was also a fifth century BC temple of Ares in Pallene which was dismantled and moved to the Athenian agora early in the Roman era.
Peisistratos returned to power for the third time about 546 BC, he came at the head of a large army of mercenaries and foreign allies he had acquired in his years of exile. Both his forces and those of the Athenians camped near the temple of Athena Pallenis and Peisistratos routed his opponents with a suprise attack at noon, while they were eating and resting. After the rout, he sent his sons chasing after them to say that they had nothing to fear if they would quietly return to their homes- which they did..
(Plut. Thes. 13; Philochor. ap. Schol. ad Eurip. Hippol. 35; Strab. viii. p.377; Steph., Hesych. sub voce Γαργηττός; πάροιθε παρθένου Παλληνίδος Eurip. Heracl. 1031; Hdt. 1.62; Böckh, Inscr. n. 23, 76)

GARGETTOS (Γαργηττός), Attic mesogeia deme of Aigeis phyle. Gargettos was located beneath the northern extremity of Hymettos, between it and Pentelikon, the modern Ieraka. The site is confirmed by the discovery of a deme decree. The name was said to have come from an eponymous hero who was the father of Ion (not the eponym of the Ionian Greeks, but rather the Ionidai). He was believed to have migrated to Elis, where his son Ion gave his name to a group of Nymphs.
A sanctuary of Dionysos was said to be in the deme and dramatic festivals were held there.
Here Theseus defeated the Pallantidai, and later, when he was preparing to depart Attica forever and live in Skyros, Theseus first went to Gargettos, where he called down curses on his enemies, from which it was called Araterion, the place of cursing.
(Γαργηττός, Steph.; Hesych.; Schol. ad Aristoph. Thesm. 905; Apollodorus, Library, 2.8.1; Suda, s.vv. Ἀρητήσιον πεδίον, Γαργηττός; Plut. Theseus, 13, 35; Strabo, Geography, 8.6.19)

HAGNOUS (Ἁγνοῡς), Attic mesogeia deme of Akamantis phyle. Scholars locate Hagnous near Dankla, east of Markopoulo.
The herald Leos was generally considered distinct from the eponymous Hero Leos son of Orpheus, whose daughters sacrificed their lives to save Athens and who was worshipped at the Leokorion in the Kerameikos. Leos the herald was, however, worshipped locally in Hagnous.
(Steph.; Phryn.; Hesych.; Suda s.v. Ἁγνούσιος, Λεωκόριον; Plutarch, Theseus, 13; Traill, John S., The Political Organization of Attica: A Study of the Demes, Trittyes, and Phylai)

ALOPEKE (Ἀλωπεκή), Attic asty deme of Antiochis phyle. It was situated only eleven or twelve stadia from the city, and not far from Cynosarges. It lay consequently south-east of Athens, the most likely location is Katsipodi.Alopeke was a major suburban center, likely making up the entire asty trittys of Antiochis. It was one of the major seats of the Alkmaionid family.
Alopeke had a number of temples, including a temple of Aphrodite and a temple of Hermaphroditos. Another sight in the deme was the tomb of Ankhimolos the Spartan. Socrates and Thoukydides, son of Melesias, the leader of the aristocratic party against Perikles, came from Alopeke.
(Aesch. c. Timarch. 99; Hdt. 5.63; Böckh, Inscr. n. 395; Alciphr. Ep. 3.37; Suda s.v.; Plut. Themistocles 32, Aristides 1, Perikles 11)

AGRYLE (Ἀγρυλή), was the name of two demi, an upper and a lower Agryle. Attic asty demes of Erechtheis phyle.
Agryle lay on the western slopes of Hymettos to the south-east of Athens and immediately south-west of Ardettos, just above the Panathenaean stadium. The location is reasonably certain, based on both literary evidence and the find of a property inscription.
The deme took its name from Agraule or Aglauros, the daughter of Kekrops.
Stretching from the left bank of the Ilissos up the slopes of Hymettos, the deme Agryle had a somewhat natural or wild character – as can be seen from the name Agrai, a known area of the deme, and the related name of the deme itself, despite being essentially a suburb just outside the walls of Athens. The deme contained both the Panathenaean stadium and the court of Ardettos, where the dikasts originally took their juror’s oath.
(Harpocrat.; Suda; Hesych.; Bekker, Anecd. i. p. 332; Strabo 9.1.24; IG II2 2776)

HALIMOUS (Ἁλιμοῦς), Attic asty deme of Leontis phyle. Halimous took its name either from its location near the sea or from the plant halimon (ἅλιμον), the sea orach (Atriplex halimus) τὰ ἅλιμα. It was situated on the coast between Phaleron and Aixone, at the distance of 35 stadia (6 km) from the city. It included Cape Kolias. The site has been identified as being near the modern Halimos and Hagios Kosmas. The location is certain thanks to the discovery of a deme decree.
On the first day of the festival of the Stenia, the women gathered into groups by the demes of their husbands and went in procession to Halimous and the temple of Demeter on Cape Kolias. According to Plutarch, Solon arranged a defeat of the Megarans in Halimous, which led to the Attic conquest of Salamis. Having traveled there during the Thesmophoria and seeing all the women, he sent a man to Salamis to tell the Megarans that the leading women of Athens were there undefended. He then sent the women away and dressed younger men as women and had them dance on the shore to lure the Megarans to land and try to kidnap them. The Megarans were all killed and Salamis lay open and undefended for the Athenians to take.
Along with the temple of Demeter Thesmophoros, there were cults of Herakles, Hera, and Dionysos. A sanctuary of Dionysos, including a theater, has been found. There was also a temple of Aphrodite Kolias.
Halimus was the demus of Thucydides the historian.
(Harpocrat.; Suda; Steph.; Bekker, Anecd. i. p. 376; Schol. ad Aristoph. Av. 498; Etym. M. s. v. alima; Strab. ix. p.398; Dem. c. Eubulid. p. 1302; Paus. 1.31.1; Dem. pp. 1314, 1319; Plut. Solon 8)

AIXONE (Αἰξωνή), Attic paralia deme of Kekropis phyle, was located on the south-western coast of Attica between modern Glyphada and Voula. It was bounded on the west by the sea and on the east by the terraced slopes of Mount Hymettos. The location has been certainly identified by the discovery of deme decrees near the church of Hagios Nikolaos.
The Classical deme was well developed. It possessed both a Leskhe or assembly house and a theater, probably on the slopes of Hymettos, where the Lesser Dionysia was celebrated.
Aexone was celebrated for its fisheries, most especially the red mullet. The people of the deme were also known for their evil tongues. So much so that Aixonian became synonymous with a slanderer and “playing the Aixonian” came to mean “to speak ill of someone”.
(Harpocrat.; Athen. 7.325; Hesych.; Suid., s. v. Αἰξωνίδα τρίγλην; Bekker, Anecd. i. p. 358; Xen. Hell. 2.4. 26; Aristoph. Wasps 895; IG II2 2492)

HALAI AIXONIDES (Ἁλαί Αἰξωνίδες), Attic paralia deme of Kekropis phyle. Halai Aixonides lay on the western coast of Attica, a little south of the deme Aixones, from which it took the second part of its name, in the region of Cape Zoster. The name Halai refers to salt-pans or saline works where salt was extracted from sea water. The deme site was near the modern Voula, bordered on the north by Aixone (modern Glyphada) and on the east by Anagyros (modern Vari). The site is confirmed by the finds of boundary stones and a deme decree.
The Halaians were responsible for the maintenance of the altars of Apollo, Athena, Artemis and Leto on Cape Zoster, where Leto was said to have paused to loosen her belt while on her way to Delos to give birth. Sacrifices were also made to Apollo Kyneeios, apparently related to tuna. However, this rite may have been dedicated to Poseidon, not Apollo.
Halai Aixonides is one of the few demes known from documentary evidence to have had its own agora, where the deme assembly met. It is also known to have had special funds earmarked for religious purposes and was one of two demes where the demarch was assisted paredroi (assessors).
(Suda, s.vv. Ἀζηνιεύς, Ἁλαιεύς; Xenophon, Hell. 2.4; Traill, John S., The Political Organization of Attica: A Study of the Demes, Trittyes, and Phylai, and Their Representation in the Athenian Council; IG II2 1174)

Ancient Attica- 1° part

XYPETE (Ξυπέτη), said to have been likewise called Τροία, because Teucrus led from hence an Attic colony into Phrygia: “Many writers, but particularly Phanodemos, who wrote the Attic archaeology, say that Teucros migrated from Attica to Asia, previously being the chief magistrate (archon) of the deme Xypete”.  Attic asty deme of the Cecropis phyle. Xypete, Peiraeus, Phalerum, and Thymaitadai formed the τετράκωμοι, who had a temple of Herakles in common (τετράκωμον Ἡρακλεῖον).Its location between this sanctuary and Phalerum at modern Kallithea-Moschato is certain.
(Strab. XIII, p. 604; Dionys. A. R. 1.61; ; Steph. B. sub voce; Pollux, 4.105; Steph. B. sub voce Ἐχελίδαι; Böckh, Inscrip. vol. 1. p. 123)


THYMAITADAI (Θυμαιτάδαι) Attic asty deme of the Hippothontis phyle. Thymaitadai was located near modern Keratsini. Thymaitadai took its name from Thymoites, the last
Theseid king of Athens. He had deposed his half-brother and was deposed, in turn, by Melanthos after an unsuccessful war with Boiotia. He was also the eponym the genos
Thymaitadai and the phratry Thymaitis.
According to Plutarch, when Theseus was preparing for war against Crete, he secretly began building a fleet: “Theseus throw himself into the task of shipbuilding, partly in
Thymaitadai in Attica, far from the travelled road, and partly in Troizen under the supervision of Pittheus, because he wanted no one to know what he was doing.”
This retired port seems to have been the same as the Phoron Limen (Φώρων λιμήν) or “Thieves’ port,” so called from its being frequented by smugglers. It is a small circular harbour at the entrance to the bay of Salamis; Leake noticed the foundations of a temple upon a height near the beach, and other remains at a quarter of a mile on the road to Athens. This temple was probably the Heracleium. It was situated on the Attic side of the Strait of Salamis; and it was from the heights of Aegaleos, above this temple, that Xerxes witnessed the battle of Salamis.
In the Wasps, Aristophanes jokes about goat-skin cloaks from the deme (or perhaps from the genos or phratry). The people of Thymaitadai were also mocked by the poets for their
litigious nature.
(Plut. Thes. 19; Dem. c. Lacrit. p. 932; Strab. IX p.395; Ctesias, Pers. 100.26, ed. Lion; Diod. 11.18; Phanodemus, ap. Plut. Them. 13; comp. Hdt. 8.90; Aristoph. Wasps 1138)


ECHELIDAI (Ἐχελίδαι), so called from the hero Echelos. A votive relief inscribed with the name of Echelos has been found some 600 metres north of New Phaleron: it is a depiction of the Hero Echelos carrying off the nymph Iasile (or Basile?) in a four-horse chariot led by Hermes (The inscription on the base indicates that it was dedicated by Kephisodotos, son of
Demogenes. According to the inscription on the epistyle, it was dedicated to Hermes and the Nymphs). Echelos was honored with Iasile in Echelidai.
It is a place within the deme Xypete rather than a constitutional deme itself, and it has been relocated to the northeast of the Peiraeus, in or near a marshy district. It possessed an
eight stades long Hippodrome, in which horse-races took place, and this hippodrome had been relocated in New Phaleron. There is an inscription which mentions Poseidon
Hippodromios, perhaps associated to a temple of Poseidon near the hippodrome, with shrine located in New Phaleron.
This Hippodrome is the place to which the narrative in Demosthenes refers, speaking of a man farming near this place.
(Steph. B. sub voce; Etym. M.s. v. Ἔχελος; Hesych. and Etym. M. s. v. ἐν Ἐχελιδῶν; Everg. p. 1155, seq. comp, Xen. de Mag. Eq. 3 § 1, 10; Ps. Dem. 47; IG II2 4545, 4546)


KORYDALLOS (Κορυδαλλός), Attic asty deme of the Hippothontis phyle. The deme of Korydallos was located at the foot of the mountain of the same name, today called Mount
Skaramanga and considered the eastern extension of Aigaleos. It is placed by Strabo between Thria and Peiraeus, near the straits of Salamis, opposite the islands of Pharmacussae.
This position is in accordance with the account of Diodorus, who, after relating the contest of Theseus with Cercyon, which, according to Pausanias, took place to the west of Eleusis,
says that Theseus next killed Procrustes, whose abode was in Corydallus.
Korydallos thus was along the Sacred Way at the western end of the pass to the Thriasian Plain and Eleusis. Not much archaeological work has been done there, because the mountain is now a military installation and is inaccessible.
Although a sanctuary of Kore Soteira is mentioned in late antiquity by Ammonius, it has not been found.
(Strabo IX, 1, 14; Diod. 4. 59; Paus. 1, 39. 3; Athen. 9.390; Plin. Nat. 10.41; Antig. Caryst. 6; Aelian, H. An. 3.35; Ammonius Diff. 279)


HERMOS (Ἕρμος), Attic asty deme of the Akamantis phyle. Hermos was located on the Sacred Way from Athens to Eleusis. It was sited at the entrance to the pass near modern Dafni at Chaidari. The location is based on literary evidence and the findspots of several grave markers. It was on the opposite side of the Kephissos from Athens, where a stream sharing the name of the deme entered the river. Nearby was a temple of Apollo.
Here was the monument of Pythonike, the wife of Harpalus:  after her death, he paid Kharikles 30 talents to design and build a tomb for her at Hermos, deifying her as Aphrodite Pythionike. Pausanias judged her tomb as the most noteworthy of all ancient Greek tombs, but Plutarch decried it as not worth the money spent.

(Plut. Phoc. 22; Harpocrat. s. v. Ἕρμος; Paus. 1.37.4; Athen. 13.594; Diod. 17.108; IG II2 6072)


OE, OEA (Ὀή), Attic paralia deme of the Oineis phyle. The location of Oe is suggested by Sophokles in Oedipus at Kolonos, on the Thriasian Plain near Mount Aigaleos ( “the pastures on the west of Oe’s snowy rock.”: the rock may have been a crag at the summit of Mount Aigaleos, thus putting Oe in the pastures below). The best candidate is the deme site found northeast of Aspropyrgos at the foot of Kalistiri.
(Soph. Oed. Col. 1061, Οἰάτιδος ἐκ νόμου, with the Schol.; Leake, p. 151.)


OION KERAMEIKON (Οἶον Κεραμεικόν), Attic asty deme of the Leontis phyle. The general location of Oion Kerameikon is suggested by its name, which suggests proximity to the deme Kerameis and the Kerameikos.- between the Sacred Way and the Long Walls. According to Philochoros, the name Oion meant an uninhabited or deserted place.
The best-known members of Oion Kerameikon all come from the family of the Bouselids. The family was descended from Bouselos, who had five sons, all of whom lived to start
families of their own. Through a series of adoptions, descent through the female line, and other complications, the family property became the subject of a number of lawsuits, two of
which have been preserved in speeches by Isaios and Demosthenes.
(Harpocrat., Suid. s. v.; Brill’s New Pauly, s.v. Oeum Cerameicum; Dem. Against Macartatus)


SKIRON (Σκίρον, Σκίρα), a small place near a torrent of the same name, just outside the Athenian walls on the Sacred Way. It was not a deme, and derived its name from Skiros, a
prophet of Dodona, who fell in the battle between the Eleusinians and Erechtheus, and was buried in this spot. Moreover “the Athenians honour Athena Skiras, whom Philokhoros
says, in the second book of Atthis, was named after Skiros, an Eleusinian prophet.”
(Strab. IX p.393; Paus. 1.36.4 ; Strab. l.c.; Steph. B. sub voce Harpocrat. s.v. comp. Schol. ad Aristoph. Eccl. 18; Philoch. F14)


LAKIADAI (Λακιάδαι), Attic asty deme of the Oineis phyle. It is on the Sacred Way, east of the Kephisos. Pausanias describes a number of important religious monuments in the
deme, including sanctuaries for Lakios and Phytalos, a sanctuary of Mourning Demeter and Kore, where Athena and Poseidon were also worshipped, and the sacred fig tree where
the Phytalids stopped to sacrifice during the procession to Eleusis. The sanctuary also had an altar of Zephyros, the west wind.
Lakiadai took its name from a genos which claimed descent from the otherwise unknown hero Lakios, whose name means “the ragged one”. It was also home to at least two other
aristocratic gene: the Phytalidai, who claimed descent from Phytalos who welcomed Demeter into his home, and the Philaidai, who claimed descent from Phiaios, the son of Ajax.
It is celebrated as the deme to which the family of Miltiades and Cimon belonged.
(Paus. 1.37.2; Plut. Cim. 4, Alc. 22; Cic. de Off. 2.1. 8; Hesych.; Suid.)


KOLONOS (Κολωνός), Attic asty deme of the Aigeis phyle. It is celebrated as the deme of Sophocles, and the scene of one of the poet’s tragedies, was situated ten stadia from the gate of the city, called Dipylum, near the Academy and the river Cephissus. The name Kolonos means “Hill” and the deme took its name from the light-colored limestone hill known as the Kolonos Hippios (Hill of the Horses or Horsemen) to distinguish it from the Kolonos Agoraios in the city where the agora was located. About a half a kilometer north
was a second limestone hill, the hill of Demeter Eukhloös- hence it is called by Sophocles “the white Colonus” (τὸν ἀργῆτα Κολωνόν).
It was under the especial care of Poseidon, and is called by Thucydides the ἱερόν of this God.  The hill took its name from the temple of Poseidon where Poseidon Hippios and Athena Hippias were worshipped. A local myth said that the first horse was born there from an act of Poseidon and that the bit was invented there. The sanctuary was large enough that in 411 BC the nobles held the assembly there rather than on the Pnyx.
Besides the temple of Poseidon, it possessed a sacred grove of the Eumenides, where They were worshipped as the Semnai, the August Goddesses. The grove was so sacred that no one was allowed to enter it. Associated with the grove was apparently an opening to the Underworld, possibly with a bronze threshold.
There were also altars of Demeter, Zeus, and Prometheus, together with sanctuaries of Peirithous, Theseus, Oedipus, and Adrastus. Nearby was the grove of Akademos, better known as the Academy. Sophokles names several shrines that were later seen in the Academy as belonging to Kolonos, which seems to imply that it was part of the deme. There were shrines to Prometheus and Eros. It was also said that the second oldest olive tree in the world was found there. It was taken from the stock of the tree growing on the Acropolis. The olive trees there were under the protection of Zeus Morios.
The natural beauties of the spot are described by Sophocles in the magnificent chorus, beginning with the words:– “εὐίππου, ξένε, τᾶσδε χώρας ἵκου τὰ κράτιστα γᾶς ἔπαυλα τὸν ἀργῆτα Κολωνόν.”
(Thuc. 8.67; Cic. de Fin. 5.1; Soph. Oed. Col.; Paus. 1.30.4)


ACHARNAI (Ἀχαρναί), Attic mesogeia deme of the Oeneis phyle. It was situated 60 stadia (11km) N of Athens, and consequently not far from the foot of Mt. Parnes.  Epigraphic evidence places it in or south-west of Menidi. Akharnai was the largest of the demes, constituting an entire trittys by itself. Despite its large size, it appears to have been largely rural, with extensive agriculture and, most notably, charcoal burning. It was from the woods of this mountain that the Acharnians were enabled to carry on that traffic in charcoal for which they were noted among the Athenians. Their land was fertile; their population was rough and warlike; and they furnished at the commencement of the Peloponnesian war 3000 hoplites, or a tenth of the whole infantry of the State. The Spartan army under King Archidamos II invaded Attica as far as Akharnai, while Perikles pulled
the population within the walls of Athens. The Spartans lay waste to the Akharnian fields and groves and then encamped there, hoping to draw out the Athenian forces. These losses
and the abandonment of the recently built temple of Ares were a primary factor in the pro-war stance of the Akharnians, prompting Aristophanes to choose this deme for the play
which took the name of its inhabitants and also to refer to Akharnian aggression in Lysistrata.
The area was inhabited going back to the Mycenaean era. A tholos tomb has been found near Lykopetra and a Bronze Age settlement in Nemesis. It was also known for its temple of Ares and Athena Areia. Other altars and sanctuaries existed for Apollo Agyieis, Athena Hygieia, Athena Hippia,Dionysos Melpomenos, and Dionysos Kissos (ivy, because they
claimed this was where the first ivy grew).
(Aristoph. Ach. 332; Thuc. 2.13, 19–21; Lucian, Icaro-Menip. 18; Pind. N. 2.25; Paus. 1.31.6; Athen. p. 234; Steph. B. sub voce Leake, Demi of Attica, p. 35, seq.; IG II2 5787, 1207)


EUPYRIDAI (Εὐπυρίδαι), Attic mesogeia deme of Leontis phyle. Eupyridai was located near modern Kamatero, north of the Aigaleos. The site is suggested by literary evidence and the find-spots of some inscriptions. Eupyridai appears to have taken its name from a genos which presumably lived in the area, perhaps deriving the name from εύπυρος, which
means ‘fertile in grain’.
Eupyridai was part of a cult association (trikomoi) with neighboring demes Kropidai and Pelekes. The nature of this association is unknown. One of the decrees which helps to locate
the deme concerned the protection of the trees in the sanctuary of Apollo Erasitheus.
(Εὐπυρίδαι, Steph. B. s.v.; IG II2 6146)


KROPIDAI (Κρωπίδαι, Κρωπία), Attic mesogeia deme of Leontis phyle. It was most likely to the west of the modern Ano Liosia. When Arkhidamos led the Spartan army into Attica in 431 BC at the beginning of the Peloponnesian War, he marched through Kropidai on the way to Akharnai afte leaving the Thriasian Plain. It must also have been near to the demes
Pelekes and Eupyridai, because it was joined together with them into a trikomoi (three village association) about which little else is known.
(Steph. B. s.v., Thuc. 2.19)


PELEKES (Πήληκες), Attic mesogeia deme of Leontis phyle. Due to its association with the demes Kropidai and Eupyridai, Pelekes was probably located to the north of Mount
Aigeleos, near modern Chassia.
(Steph. B. sub voce Εὐρυπίδαι; Thuc. 2.19)